Credit: USask Textbook
Gestalt Principles of Perception by Edited by Leanne Stevens is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.
|Table SAP.2 Summary of Gestalt Principles of Form Perception.|
|Figure-ground relationship||We structure input so that we always see a figure (image) against a ground (background).||At right, you may see a vase or you may see two faces, but in either case, you will organize the image as a figure against a ground.||
|Similarity||Stimuli that are similar to each other tend to be grouped together.||You are more likely to see three similar columns among the XYX characters at right than you are to see four rows.||
|Proximity||We tend to group nearby figures together.||Do you see four or eight images at right? Principles of proximity suggest that you might see only four.||
|Continuity||We tend to perceive stimuli in smooth, continuous ways rather than in more discontinuous ways.||At right, most people see a line of dots that moves from the lower left to the upper right, rather than a line that moves from the left and then suddenly turns down. The principle of continuity leads us to see most lines as following the smoothest possible path.||
|Closure||We tend to fill in gaps in an incomplete image to create a complete, whole object.||Closure leads us to see a single spherical object at right rather than a set of unrelated cones.|