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49 Key Terms for Memory

lapses in memory that are caused by breaks in attention or our focus being somewhere else
acoustic encoding
input of sounds, words, and music
loss of long-term memory that occurs as the result of disease, physical trauma, or psychological trauma
anterograde amnesia
loss of memory for events that occur after the brain trauma
arousal theory
strong emotions trigger the formation of strong memories and weaker emotional experiences form weaker memories
Atkinson-Shiffrin model
memory model that states we process information through three systems: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
automatic processing
encoding of informational details like time, space, frequency, and the meaning of words
how feelings and view of the world distort memory of past events
memory error in which you cannot access stored information
organizing information into manageable bits or chunks
formulation of new memories
declarative memory
type of long-term memory of facts and events we personally experience
effortful processing
encoding of information that takes effort and attention
elaborative rehearsal
thinking about the meaning of new information and its relation to knowledge already stored in your memory
input of information into the memory system
physical trace of memory
episodic memory
type of declarative memory that contains information about events we have personally experienced, also known as autobiographical memory
equipotentiality hypothesis
some parts of the brain can take over for damaged parts in forming and storing memories
explicit memory
memories we consciously try to remember and recall
false memory syndrome
recall of false autobiographical memories
flashbulb memory
exceptionally clear recollection of an important event
loss of information from long-term memory
implicit memory
memories that are not part of our consciousness
levels of processing
information that is thought of more deeply becomes more meaningful and thus better committed to memory
long-term memory (LTM)
continuous storage of information
set of processes used to encode, store, and retrieve information over different periods of time
memory-enhancing strategy
technique to help make sure information goes from short-term memory to long-term memory
memory error in which you confuse the source of your information
misinformation effect paradigm
after exposure to additional and possibly inaccurate information, a person may misremember the original event
mnemonic device
memory aids that help organize information for encoding
failure of the memory system that involves the involuntary recall of unwanted memories, particularly unpleasant ones
proactive interference
old information hinders the recall of newly learned information
procedural memory
type of long-term memory for making skilled actions, such as how to brush your teeth, how to drive a car, and how to swim
accessing information without cues
identifying previously learned information after encountering it again, usually in response to a cue
process of bringing up old memories that might be distorted by new information
repetition of information to be remembered
learning information that was previously learned
act of getting information out of long-term memory storage and back into conscious awareness
retroactive interference
information learned more recently hinders the recall of older information
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory for events that occurred prior to brain trauma
self-reference effect
tendency for an individual to have better memory for information that relates to oneself in comparison to material that has less personal relevance
semantic encoding
input of words and their meaning
semantic memory
type of declarative memory about words, concepts, and language-based knowledge and facts
sensory memory
storage of brief sensory events, such as sights, sounds, and tastes
short-term memory (STM)
holds about seven bits of information before it is forgotten or stored, as well as information that has been retrieved and is being used
creation of a permanent record of information
effects of misinformation from external sources that leads to the creation of false memories
memory error in which unused memories fade with the passage of time
visual encoding
input of images


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