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Multiple Choice Questions
1. As a field, social psychology focuses on ________ in predicting human behaviour.
- personality traits
- genetic predispositions
- biological forces
- situational factors
2. Making internal attributions for your successes and making external attributions for your failures is an example of ________.
- actor-observer bias
- fundamental attribution error
- self-serving bias
- just-world hypothesis
3. Collectivistic cultures are to ________ as individualistic cultures are to ________.
- dispositional; situational
- situational; dispositional
- autonomy; group harmony
- just-world hypothesis; self-serving bias
4. According to the actor-observer bias, we have more information about ________.
- situational influences on behaviour
- influences on our own behaviour
- influences on others’ behaviour
- dispositional influences on behaviour
5. A(n) ________ is a set of group expectations for appropriate thoughts and behaviours of its members.
- social role
- social norm
6. On his first day of soccer practice, Jose suits up in a t-shirt, shorts, and cleats and runs out to the field to join his teammates. Jose’s behaviour is reflective of ________.
- a script
- social influence
- good athletic behaviour
- normative behaviour
7. When it comes to buying clothes, teenagers often follow social norms; this is likely motivated by ________.
- following parents’ rules
- saving money
- fitting in
- looking good
8. In the Stanford prison experiment, even the lead researcher succumbed to his role as a prison supervisor. This is an example of the power of ________ influencing behaviour.
- social norms
- social roles
9. Attitudes describe our ________ of people, objects, and ideas.
10. Cognitive dissonance causes discomfort because it disrupts our sense of ________.
11. In order for the central route to persuasion to be effective, the audience must be ________ and ________.
- analytical; motivated
- attentive; happy
- intelligent; unemotional
- gullible; distracted
12. Examples of cues used in peripheral route persuasion include all of the following except ________.
- celebrity endorsement
- positive emotions
- attractive models
- factual information
13. In the Asch experiment, participants conformed due to ________ social influence.
14. Under what conditions will informational social influence be more likely?
- when individuals want to fit in
- when the answer is unclear
- when the group has expertise
- both b and c
15. Social loafing occurs when ________.
- individual performance cannot be evaluated
- the task is easy
- both a and b
- none of the above
16. If group members modify their opinions to align with a perceived group consensus, then ________ has occurred.
- group cohesion
- social facilitation
- social loafing
17. Prejudice is to ________ as discrimination is to ________.
- feelings; behaviour
- thoughts; feelings
- feelings; thoughts
- behaviour; feelings
18. Which of the following is not a type of prejudice?
19. ________ occurs when the out-group is blamed for the in-group’s frustration.
- in-group bias
20. When we seek out information that supports our stereotypes we are engaged in ________.
- confirmation bias
- self-fulfilling prophecy
- in-group bias
21. Typically, bullying from boys is to ________ as bullying from girls is to ________.
- emotional harm; physical harm
- physical harm; emotional harm
- psychological harm; physical harm
- social exclusion; verbal taunting
22. Which of the following adolescents is least likely to be targeted for bullying?
- a child with a physical disability
- a transgender adolescent
- an emotionally sensitive boy
- the captain of the football team
23. The bystander effect likely occurs due to ________.
- desensitization to violence
- people not noticing the emergency
- diffusion of responsibility
- emotional insensitivity
24. Altruism is a form of prosocial behaviour that is motivated by ________.
- feeling good about oneself
- selfless helping of others
- earning a reward
- showing bravery to bystanders
25. After moving to a new apartment building, research suggests that Sam will be most likely to become friends with ________.
- his next door neighbour
- someone who lives three floors up in the apartment building
- someone from across the street
- his new postal delivery person
26. What trait do both men and women tend to look for in a romantic partner?
- sense of humour
- social skills
- leadership potential
- physical attractiveness
27. According to the triangular theory of love, what type of love is defined by passion and intimacy but no commitment?
- consummate love
- empty love
- romantic love
28. According to social exchange theory, humans want to maximize the ________ and minimize the ________ in relationships.
- intimacy; commitment
- benefits; costs
- costs; benefits
- passion; intimacy
Critical Thinking Questions
29. Compare and contrast situational influences and dispositional influences and give an example of each. Explain how situational influences and dispositional influences might explain inappropriate behaviour.
30. Provide an example of how people from individualistic and collectivistic cultures would differ in explaining why they won an important sporting event.
31. Why didn’t the “good” guards in the Stanford prison experiment object to other guards’ abusive behaviour? Were the student prisoners simply weak people? Why didn’t they object to being abused?
32. Describe how social roles, social norms, and scripts were evident in the Stanford prison experiment. How can this experiment be applied to everyday life? Are there any more recent examples where people started fulfilling a role and became abusive?
33. Give an example (one not used in class or your text) of cognitive dissonance and how an individual might resolve this.
34. Imagine that you work for an advertising agency, and you’ve been tasked with developing an advertising campaign to increase sales of Bliss Soda. How would you develop an advertisement for this product that uses a central route of persuasion? How would you develop an ad using a peripheral route of persuasion?
35. Describe how seeking outside opinions can prevent groupthink.
36. Compare and contrast social loafing and social facilitation.
37. Some people seem more willing to openly display prejudice regarding sexual orientation than prejudice regarding race and gender. Speculate on why this might be.
38. When people blame a scapegoat, how do you think they choose evidence to support the blame?
39. Compare and contrast hostile and instrumental aggression.
40. What evidence discussed in the previous section suggests that cyberbullying is difficult to detect and prevent?
41. Describe what influences whether relationships will be formed.
42. The evolutionary theory argues that humans are motivated to perpetuate their genes and reproduce. Using an evolutionary perspective, describe traits in men and women that humans find attractive.
Personal Application Questions
43. Provide a personal example of an experience in which your behaviour was influenced by the power of the situation.
44. Think of an example in the media of a sports figure—player or coach—who gives a self-serving attribution for winning or losing. Examples might include accusing the referee of incorrect calls, in the case of losing, or citing their own hard work and talent, in the case of winning.
45. Try attending a religious service very different from your own and see how you feel and behave without knowing the appropriate script. Or, try attending an important, personal event that you have never attended before, such as a bar mitzvah (a coming-of-age ritual in Jewish culture), a quinceañera (in some Latin American cultures a party is given to a girl who is turning 15 years old), a wedding, a funeral, or a sporting event new to you, such as horse racing or bull riding. Observe and record your feelings and behaviours in this unfamiliar setting for which you lack the appropriate script. Do you silently observe the action, or do you ask another person for help interpreting the behaviours of people at the event? Describe in what ways your behaviour would change if you were to attend a similar event in the future?
46. Name and describe at least three social roles you have adopted for yourself. Why did you adopt these roles? What are some roles that are expected of you, but that you try to resist?
47. Cognitive dissonance often arises after making an important decision, called post-decision dissonance (or in popular terms, buyer’s remorse). Describe a recent decision you made that caused dissonance and describe how you resolved it.
48. Describe a time when you or someone you know used the foot-in-the-door technique to gain someone’s compliance.
49. Conduct a conformity study the next time you are in an elevator. After you enter the elevator, stand with your back toward the door. See if others conform to your behaviour. Watch this video for a candid camera demonstration of this phenomenon. Did your results turn out as expected?
50. Most students adamantly state that they would never have turned up the voltage in the Milligram experiment. Do you think you would have refused to shock the learner? Looking at your own past behaviour, what evidence suggests that you would go along with the order to increase the voltage?
51. Give an example when you felt that someone was prejudiced against you. What do you think caused this attitude? Did this person display any discrimination behaviours and, if so, how?
52. Give an example when you felt prejudiced against someone else. How did you discriminate against them? Why do you think you did this?
53. Have you ever experienced or witnessed bullying or cyberbullying? How did it make you feel? What did you do about it? After reading this section would you have done anything differently?
54. The next time you see someone needing help, observe your surroundings. Look to see if the bystander effect is in action and take measures to make sure the person gets help. If you aren’t able to help, notify an adult or authority figure that can.
55. Think about your recent friendships and romantic relationship(s). What factors do you think influenced the development of these relationships? What attracted you to becoming friends or romantic partners?
56. Have you ever used a social exchange theory approach to determine how satisfied you were in a relationship, either a friendship or romantic relationship? Have you ever had the costs outweigh the benefits of a relationship? If so, how did you address this imbalance?