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77 Review Questions

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Multiple Choice Questions

1The view that development is a cumulative process, gradually adding to the same type of skills is known as ________.

  1. nature
  2. nurture
  3. continuous development
  4. discontinuous development

2Developmental psychologists study human growth and development across three domains. Which of the following is not one of these domains?

  1. cognitive
  2. psychological
  3. physical
  4. psychosocial

3How is lifespan development defined?

  1. The study of how we grow and change from conception to death.
  2. The study of how we grow and change in infancy and childhood.
  3. The study of physical, cognitive, and psychosocial growth in children.
  4. The study of emotions, personality, and social relationships.

4The idea that even if something is out of sight, it still exists is called ________.

  1. egocentrism
  2. object permanence
  3. conservation
  4. reversibility

5Which theorist proposed that moral thinking proceeds through a series of stages?

  1. Sigmund Freud
  2. Erik Erikson
  3. John Watson
  4. Lawrence Kohlberg

6According to Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, what is the main task of the adolescent?

  1. developing autonomy
  2. feeling competent
  3. forming an identity
  4. forming intimate relationships

7Which of the following is the correct order of prenatal development?

  1. zygote, fetus, embryo
  2. fetus, embryo zygote
  3. fetus, zygote, embryo
  4. zygote, embryo, fetus

8The time during fetal growth when specific parts or organs develop is known as ________.

  1. critical period
  2. mitosis
  3. conception
  4. pregnancy

9What begins as a single-cell structure that is created when a sperm and egg merge at conception?

  1. embryo
  2. fetus
  3. zygote
  4. infant

10Using scissors to cut out paper shapes is an example of ________.

  1. gross motor skills
  2. fine motor skills
  3. large motor skills
  4. small motor skills

11The child uses the parent as a base from which to explore their world in which attachment style?

  1. secure
  2. insecure avoidant
  3. insecure ambivalent-resistant
  4. disorganized

12The frontal lobes become fully developed ________.

  1. at birth
  2. at the beginning of adolescence
  3. at the end of adolescence
  4. by 25 years old

13Who created the very first modern hospice?

  1. Elizabeth Kübler-Ross
  2. Cicely Saunders
  3. Florence Wald
  4. Florence Nightingale

14Which of the following is the order of stages in Kübler-Ross’s five-stage model of grief?

  1. denial, bargaining, anger, depression, acceptance
  2. anger, depression, bargaining, acceptance, denial
  3. denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
  4. anger, acceptance, denial, depression, bargaining

Critical Thinking Questions

15Describe the nature versus nurture controversy, and give an example of a trait and how it might be influenced by each?

16Compare and contrast continuous and discontinuous development.

17Why should developmental milestones only be used as a general guideline for normal child development?

18What is the difference between assimilation and accommodation? Provide examples of each.

19Why was Carol Gilligan critical of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development?

20What is egocentrism? Provide an original example.

21What are some known teratogens, and what kind of damage can they do to the developing fetus?

22What is prenatal care and why is it important?

23Describe what happens in the embryonic stage of development. Describe what happens in the fetal stage of development.

24What makes a personal quality part of someone’s personality?

25Describe some of the newborn reflexes. How might they promote survival?

26Compare and contrast the four parenting styles and describe the kinds of childhood outcomes we can expect with each.

27What is emerging adulthood and what are some factors that have contributed to this new stage of development?

28Describe the five stages of grief and provide examples of how a person might react in each stage.

29What is the purpose of hospice care?

Personal Application Questions

30How are you different today from the person you were at 6 years old? What about at 16 years old? How are you the same as the person you were at those ages?

31Your 3-year-old child is not yet potty trained. Based on what you know about the normative approach, should you be concerned? Why or why not?

32Explain how you would use your understanding of one of the major developmental theories to deal with each of the difficulties listed below:

  1. Your infant puts everything in their mouth, including the dog’s food.
  2. Your eight-year-old child is failing math; all they care about is baseball.
  3. Your two-year-old child refuses to wear the clothes you pick for them every morning, which makes getting dressed a twenty-minute battle.
  4. Your sixty-eight-year-old neighbour is chronically depressed and feels they have wasted their life.
  5. Your 18-year-old child has decided not to go to college. Instead they’re moving to Colorado to become a ski instructor.
  6. Your 11-year-old child is the class bully.

33Which parenting style describes how you were raised? Provide an example or two to support your answer.

34Would you describe your experience of puberty as one of pride or embarrassment? Why?

35Your best friend is a smoker who just found out they are pregnant. What would you tell them about smoking and pregnancy?

36Imagine you are a nurse working at a clinic that provides prenatal care for expecting parents. Your patient has heard that it’s a good idea to play music for their unborn baby, and they wants to know when their baby’s hearing will develop. What will you tell them?

37Have you ever had to cope with the loss of a loved one? If so, what concepts described in this section provide context that may help you understand your experience and process of grieving?

38If you were diagnosed with a terminal illness would you choose hospice care or a traditional death in a hospital? Why?

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