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67 Key Terms for Language & Intelligence

algorithm
problem-solving strategy characterized by a specific set of instructions
analytical intelligence
aligned with academic problem solving and computations
anchoring bias
faulty heuristic in which you fixate on a single aspect of a problem to find a solution
artificial concept
concept that is defined by a very specific set of characteristics
availability heuristic
faulty heuristic in which you make a decision based on information readily available to you
cognition
thinking, including perception, learning, problem solving, judgment, and memory
cognitive psychology
field of psychology dedicated to studying every aspect of how people think
cognitive script
set of behaviours that are performed the same way each time; also referred to as an event schema
concept
category or grouping of linguistic information, objects, ideas, or life experiences
confirmation bias
faulty heuristic in which you focus on information that confirms your beliefs
convergent thinking
providing correct or established answers to problems
creative intelligence
ability to produce new products, ideas, or inventing a new, novel solution to a problem
creativity
ability to generate, create, or discover new ideas, solutions, and possibilities
crystallized intelligence
characterized by acquired knowledge and the ability to retrieve it
cultural intelligence
ability with which people can understand and relate to those in another culture
deductive reasoning
applying general rules to specific observations (the opposite of inductive reasoning)
divergent thinking
ability to think “outside the box” to arrive at novel solutions to a problem
emotional intelligence
ability to understand emotions and motivations in yourself and others
event schema
set of behaviours that are performed the same way each time; also referred to as a cognitive script
fluid intelligence
ability to see complex relationships and solve problems
Flynn effect
observation that each generation has a significantly higher IQ than the previous generation
functional fixedness
inability to see an object as useful for any other use other than the one for which it was intended
grammar
set of rules that are used to convey meaning through the use of a lexicon
heuristic
mental shortcut that saves time when solving a problem
hindsight bias
belief that the event just experienced was predictable, even though it really wasn’t
inductive reasoning
drawing general conclusions from specific observations
intelligence quotient
(also, IQ) score on a test designed to measure intelligence
language
communication system that involves using words to transmit information from one individual to another
lexicon
the words of a given language
mental set
continually using an old solution to a problem without results
morpheme
smallest unit of language that conveys some type of meaning
Multiple Intelligences Theory
Gardner’s theory that each person possesses at least eight types of intelligence
natural concept
mental groupings that are created “naturally” through your experiences
norming
administering a test to a large population so data can be collected to reference the normal scores for a population and its groups
overgeneralization
extension of a rule that exists in a given language to an exception to the rule
phoneme
basic sound unit of a given language
practical intelligence
aka “street smarts”
problem-solving strategy
method for solving problems
prototype
best representation of a concept
range of reaction
each person’s response to the environment is unique based on his or her genetic make-up
representative bias
faulty heuristic in which you stereotype someone or something without a valid basis for your judgment
representative sample
subset of the population that accurately represents the general population
role schema
set of expectations that define the behaviours of a person occupying a particular role
schema
(plural = schemata) mental construct consisting of a cluster or collection of related concepts
semantics
process by which we derive meaning from morphemes and words
standard deviation
measure of variability that describes the difference between a set of scores and their mean
standardization
method of testing in which administration, scoring, and interpretation of results are consistent
stereotype threat
performance decrements that are caused by the knowledge of cultural stereotypes
syntax
manner by which words are organized into sentences
trial and error
problem-solving strategy in which multiple solutions are attempted until the correct one is found
triarchic theory of intelligence
Sternberg’s theory of intelligence; three facets of intelligence: practical, creative, and analytical
working backwards
heuristic in which you begin to solve a problem by focusing on the end result

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Key Terms for Language & Intelligence by Dalhousie University Introduction to Psychology and Neuroscience Team is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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