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Multiple Choice Questions
1. Need for ________ refers to maintaining positive relationships with others.
2. ________ proposed the hierarchy of needs.
- William James
- David McClelland
- Abraham Maslow
- Albert Bandura
3. ________ is an individual’s belief in their capability to complete some task.
- physiological needs
4. Riley mows the yard of their elderly neighbor each week for $20. What type of motivation is this?
5. ________ is a chemical messenger secreted by fat cells that acts as an appetite suppressant.
6. ________ is characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by attempts to compensate for the excessive amount of food that was consumed.
- Prader-Willi syndrome
- morbid obesity
- anorexia nervosa
- bulimia nervosa
7. Animal research suggests that in male rats the ________ is critical for the ability to engage in sexual behaviour, but not for the motivation to do so.
- nucleus accumbens
- medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus
8. During the ________ phase of the sexual response cycle, individuals experience rhythmic contractions of the pelvis that are accompanied by uterine contractions in those with vaginas and ejaculation in those with penises.
9. Which of the following findings was not a result of the Kinsey study?
- Sexual desire and sexual ability can be separate functions.
- Females enjoy sex as much as males.
- Homosexual behaviour is fairly common.
- Masturbation has no adverse consequences.
10. If someone is uncomfortable identifying with the gender normally associated with their biological sex, then they could be classified as experiencing ________.
- gender dysphoria
11. Individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder have been shown to have reduced volumes of the ________.
12. According to the ________ theory of emotion, emotional experiences arise from physiological arousal.
- Schachter-Singer two-factor
13. Which of the following is not one of the seven universal emotions described in this chapter?
14. Which of the following theories of emotion would suggest that polygraphs should be quite accurate at differentiating one emotion from another?
- Cannon-Bard theory
- James-Lange theory
- Schachter-Singer two-factor theory
- Darwinian theory
Critical Thinking Questions
15. How might someone espousing an arousal theory of motivation explain visiting an amusement park?
16. Schools often use concrete rewards to increase adaptive behaviours. How might this be a disadvantage for students intrinsically motivated to learn? What are educational implications of the potential for concrete rewards to diminish intrinsic motivation for a given task?
17. As indicated in this section, Caucasian women from industrialized, Western cultures tend to be at the highest risk for eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Why might this be?
18. While much research has been conducted on how an individual develops a given sexual orientation, many people question the validity of this research citing that the participants used may not be representative. Why do you think this might be a legitimate concern?
19. There is no reliable scientific evidence that gay conversion therapy actually works. What kinds of evidence would you need to see in order to be convinced by someone arguing that she had successfully converted her sexual orientation?
20. Imagine you find a venomous snake crawling up your leg just after taking a drug that prevented sympathetic nervous system activation. What would the James-Lange theory predict about your experience?
21. Why can we not make causal claims regarding the relationship between the volume of the hippocampus and PTSD?
Personal Application Questions
22. Can you think of recent examples of how Maslow’s hierarchy of needs might have affected your behaviour in some way?
23. Think about popular television programs on the air right now. What do the people in these programs look like? What kinds of messages do you think the media is sending about the people in our society?
24. Think about times in your life when you have been absolutely elated (e.g., perhaps your school’s basketball team just won a closely contested ballgame for the national championship) and very fearful (e.g., you are about to give a speech in your public speaking class to a roomful of 100 strangers). How would you describe how your arousal manifested itself physically? Were there marked differences in physiological arousal associated with each emotional state?