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83 Key Terms for Motivation and Emotion

anorexia nervosa
eating disorder characterized by an individual maintaining body weight that is well below average through starvation and/or excessive exercise
basolateral complex
part of the brain with dense connections with a variety of sensory areas of the brain; it is critical for classical conditioning and attaching emotional value to memory
binge eating disorder
type of eating disorder characterized by binge eating and associated distress
bisexual
emotional and erotic attractions to both same-sexed individuals and opposite-sexed individuals
body language
emotional expression through body position or movement
bulimia nervosa
type of eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
physiological arousal and emotional experience occur at the same time
central nucleus
part of the brain involved in attention and has connections with the hypothalamus and various brainstem areas to regulate the autonomic nervous and endocrine systems’ activity
cognitive-mediational theory
our emotions are determined by our appraisal of the stimulus
components of emotion
physiological arousal, psychological appraisal, and subjective experience
cultural display rule
one of the culturally specific standards that govern the types and frequencies of emotions that are acceptable
distorted body image
individuals view themselves as overweight even though they are not
drive theory
deviations from homeostasis create physiological needs that result in psychological drive states that direct behaviour to meet the need and ultimately bring the system back to homeostasis
emotion
subjective state of being often described as feelings
excitement
phase of the sexual response cycle that involves sexual arousal
extrinsic motivation
motivation that arises from external factors or rewards
facial feedback hypothesis
facial expressions are capable of influencing our emotions
gender dysphoria
diagnostic category in DSM-5 for individuals who do not identify as the gender associated with their biological sex
gender identity
individual’s sense of having a particular gender
habit
pattern of behaviour in which we regularly engage
heterosexual
emotional and erotic attractions to opposite-sexed individuals
hierarchy of needs
spectrum of needs ranging from basic biological needs to social needs to self-actualization
homosexual
emotional and erotic attractions to same-sexed individuals
instinct
species-specific pattern of behaviour that is unlearned
intrinsic motivation
motivation based on internal feelings rather than external rewards
James-Lange theory of emotion
emotions arise from physiological arousal
leptin
satiety hormone
metabolic rate
amount of energy that is expended in a given period of time
motivation
wants or needs that direct behaviour toward some goal
orgasm
peak phase of the sexual response cycle associated with rhythmic muscle contractions (and ejaculation)
overweight
adult with a BMI between 25 and 29.9
plateau
phase of the sexual response cycle that falls between excitement and orgasm
polygraph
lie detector test that measures physiological arousal of individuals as they answer a series of questions
refractory period
time immediately following an orgasm during which an individual is incapable of experiencing another orgasm
resolution
phase of the sexual response cycle following orgasm during which the body returns to its unaroused state
satiation
fullness; satisfaction
Schachter-Singer two-factor theory of emotion
emotions consist of two factors: physiological and cognitive
self-efficacy
individual’s belief in their own capabilities or capacities to complete a task
set point theory
assertion that each individual has an ideal body weight, or set point, that is resistant to change
sexual orientation
one’s emotional and erotic attraction to others
sexual response cycle
divided into 4 phases including excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
hormone therapy
use of hormones to change the appearance of one’s body, often used to treat gender dysphoria
Yerkes-Dodson law
simple tasks are performed best when arousal levels are relatively high, while complex tasks are best performed when arousal is lower

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Key Terms for Motivation and Emotion by Edited by Leanne Stevens is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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